You describe a wave by setting the amplitude, the frequency, and the delay between source and detector (set by the distance and wave speed).
The vibrating can be to-and-fro(longitudinal waves), or up-and-down(transverse waves).
Electromagnetic waves, used to describe light, radio and radar as well as other radiations, are transverse waves.
The magnetic vibration is at right angles to the electric vibration, and both are at right angles to the direction the wave travels.
If the up-and-down vibrations are all in the same plane, then the wave is
Light that bounces off water or snow is polarised: that's why Polaroid sunglasses work so well for skiers, sailors and anglers. Light from lamps and torches is usually unpolarised.